When you call restful API with Retrofit, sometimes there are query arguments which are JSON objects you should provide.

The json format string contains characters which cannot be used in a URL such as quotation, comma …

Then we have to do encoding on the JSON objects to fit URL format.

First of all, you got an API contract:

private interface SomeApi {
    Single<Response<List<Card>>> getCards(@Path("user_id") String userId, @Query(value = "query", encoded = true) Filter filter);

We need to get cards of a user based on a filter. The query argument which marked as @Query would appear in the request URL. But it’s not a builtin type such as int, String …

It’s a Java object which would be turned in to a JSON string then pass to the request URL. So we have to encode it.

public final class EncodingGsonConverterFactory extends Converter.Factory {
    public static EncodingGsonConverterFactory create(GsonConverterFactory gsonConverterFactory, Gson gson) {
        if (gsonConverterFactory == null)
            throw new NullPointerException("gsonConverterFactory == null");
        if (gson == null) throw new NullPointerException("gson == null");
        return new EncodingGsonConverterFactory(gsonConverterFactory, gson);

    private final GsonConverterFactory gsonConverterFactory;
    private final Gson gson;

    private EncodingGsonConverterFactory(GsonConverterFactory gsonConverterFactory, Gson gson) {
        this.gsonConverterFactory = gsonConverterFactory;
        this.gson = gson;

    public Converter<?, String> stringConverter(Type type, Annotation[] annotations, Retrofit retrofit) {
        return (Converter<Object, String>) value -> {
            if (value instanceof CharSequence || value instanceof Boolean || value instanceof Character || value instanceof Number)
                return value.toString();
            return URLEncoder.encode(gson.toJson(value), "UTF-8");

    public Converter<ResponseBody, ?> responseBodyConverter(Type type, Annotation[] annotations,
                                                            Retrofit retrofit) {
        return gsonConverterFactory.responseBodyConverter(type, annotations, retrofit);

    public Converter<?, RequestBody> requestBodyConverter(Type type,
                                                          Annotation[] parameterAnnotations, Annotation[] methodAnnotations, Retrofit retrofit) {
        return gsonConverterFactory.requestBodyConverter(type, parameterAnnotations, methodAnnotations, retrofit);

Then add the EncodingGsonConverterFactory to your Retrofit instance.

public Retrofit provideRetrofit(Gson gson, OkHttpClient okHttpClient) {
    return new Retrofit.Builder()
            .addConverterFactory(EncodingGsonConverterFactory.create(GsonConverterFactory.create(gson), gson))